All.abies born in the United States?except those born to enemy aliens in wartime or the children of foreign diplomats?enjoy U.S. citizenship under the Supreme Court 's long-standing interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment. 32 The amendment states: ?All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.? 33 There remains dispute as to who is ?subject to the jurisdiction? of the United States at birth. 34 By acts of Congress, every person born in Puerto Rico, the U.S. This sentiment implies reciprocity: the expectation that, in times of need, one could also benefit from the solidarity of fellow citizens Miller, 1995; Canovan, 1996. Citizenship status, under social contract theory, carries with it both rights and duties . When you become a citizen by completing your application for U.S. If we believe that formal and informal democratic institutions like Parliaments and the public sphere require relatively high levels of horizontal communication between citizens, the existence of a common language appears a necessary condition to democratic agency. If the division ostensibly made it possible for citizens to engage with each other as equals, feminists doubt whether it ever was the ideal way of achieving this goal. Some exclusions still persist for internationally adopted children born before Feb 27, 1983 even though their parents meet citizenship criteria. Here are ideas to get you started.